41236).Please send references, or more studies are needed. Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology May 2011: Ref. However, the tendency of farmers to increase income per unit area has led to an excessive use of fertilizers, proteinaceous feeds and chemicals that may have detrimental effects on the environment. Corpus ID: 214631320. [Draft report]. In general, carp are low-valued species fetching market prices of less than USD 1/kg at the producers' level; therefore, the use of major inputs such as seed, fertilizers and supplementary feed, besides labour costs, is kept to a minimum. Radhakrishnan (eds. However, long distance transport of mrigal with other carps packed with crushed ice at 1:1 ratio in rectangular plastic crates (60 cm x 40 cm x 23 cm) in insulated vans is often practiced in India. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(3):388-395. Thenohanellus catlae;Myxobolus bengalensis; M. catlae; M. hosadurgensis, Aeromonas hydrophila; A. sorbia; Aphanomyces invadans, Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System - AAPQIS, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species - DIAS, FAO FishStatJ – Universal software for fishery statistical time series, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific - NACA, Ulcerations; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Destroy badly infected fish; disinfect affected ponds with 0.5 ppm solution of KMnO, Raised white plaques, often with reddish peripheral zone leading to haemorrhagic spots on body, Body scales stretch out resembling pine cone; inflammation; ulceration; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Mould grows like cotton wool on body, penetrating into the muscle; morbid muscle rot, Fungus grows out through gill blood vessels and causes necrosis of surrounding tissues; yellow-brown discolouration & disintegration of gill tissues, Addition of quick lime (50-100 kg/ha) to affected ponds; in case of limited infections, use 3-5% NaCl bath for 5-10 minutes, or 5 ppm KMnO, Skin, fin rays & operculum covered with white spores; sick fish keep rubbing against hard substratum, Dip in 1:5000 formalin solution for 1 hour for 7-10 days or in 2% NaCl for 7-10 days; affected ponds should be disinfected with quicklime at 200 kg/ha, Invasion of parasites in skin & gill region, Weakness; emaciation; raising of scales along their posterior margins; scale loss; perforation of scales; loss of chromatophores, Reduce density; add yeast to feed (1 g/kg); 2-3% NaCl bath, Gill, fin & skin affected; excessive mucus secretion, 3-5% NaCl dip treatment for 5-10 minutes; 100 ppm formalin bath; treat affected ponds with 25 ppm formalin or 4 ppm KMnO, Black nodules due to metacercarial cysts in the host body; infects eye and causes blindness, Parasites visible to naked eye attached to head & fin rays; haemorrhagic spots found in chronic cases, Drain and dry ponds showing severe Argulus infection; short duration 5 ppm KMnO, Large red or grey shallow ulcers with necrotic areas on skin; fungus extends deep into the musculature; lesions of acute dermatitis and ulcers, 200 kg/ha quicklime or 0.1 ppm CIFAX (a CIFA, India formulation). The compatibility of mrigal in polyculture systems with other carps has already been established. 83-133. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. A comparative study of growth rate of rohu - mrigal and mrigal - rohu hybrids and their parental species. Six data classes i.e. Labeo Rohita 2. Bhubaneswar. However, increased emphasis on intensification for enhancing production in recent years has resulted in increased use of chemical fertilizers, feeds, therapeutics, drugs, chemicals, etc., which pose some concern. Mrigal is cultured mainly as a component of carp polyculture systems in the ponds of India and Bangladesh, the major producing countries. This species has long been important in polyculture with other native species, mainly in India. Cirrhinus mrigala is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Cirrhinus.It is found in northern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. Adults are bottom dwellers.It is an illiophage in its feeding habit and stenophagous; detritus and decayed vegetation form its principal food components, while phytoplankton and zooplankton comprise the rest. Channa gachua […] Gopakumar, K., Ayyappan, S., Jena, J.K., Sahoo, S.K., Sarkar, S.K., Satapathy, B.B. 2. A first report on quadruple spawning of Catla catla (Ham.). [Draft report], Pathak, S.C. & Palanisamy, K. 1995. Myanmar Study Report. The principle behind this polyculture system is the utilization of all available natural food niches and resources at different layers of the water body and at different trophic levels to achieve maximum production per unit area of water body. The species is mostly marketed fresh in local markets. Volume 1. Development of processing and value-added products. Rome, FAO. Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.N. Cirrhinus mrigala did equally well on all ingredients while Hypophthalmichthys molitrix did very poorly. 93245). Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme, Main producer countries of Cirrhinus mrigala (FAO Fishery Statistics, 2006). ... infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp, Cirrhinus mrigala, was characterized by the 18S rRNA gene sequence. National Freshwater Aquaculture Development Plan.CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India, 75 pp. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is one of the most widely used architectures for image classification based on visual features. MATERIALS AND METHODS Live 150 healthy fingerlings of Cirrhinus mrigala of mean weight 4.502 grams were collected from Manjri Fish Farm in Hadapsar using net and brought to the laboratory where they were cleansed with dilute KMnO 4 In this system, broodstock are kept at 3-5 kg /m. Nepal Study Report. & Jhingran, A.G. 1991. It is commercially cultured in India and in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal. Heteropneustes fossilis 8. 1999. However, being a bottom dweller, the harvesting of this species is a perpetual problem, especially in undrainable ponds. Cast nets are often used for partial harvesting in small and backyard ponds. Furthermore, the compatibility of mrigal in polyculture systems with regard to habitat preference and feeding habits is good. Being a low input-based system, carp culture has not generally been perceived as a threat to the environment. India Study Report. Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), a carp endemic to Indo-Gangetic riverine systems, is one of the three Indian major carp species cultivated widely in Southeast Asian countries. More recently in India, freshwater carp culture has reached a stage termed as ‘aquaplosion’ or ‘blue revolution’ due to innovative efforts of enterprising carp culturists, such as in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, where vast areas of paddy fields were converted into fish ponds, since culture of Indian major carp was more profitable than traditional paddy cultivation. Aquaculture products can anchorage several pathogenic bacterial species, which are known as part of the micro-flora of the environment. S. A. Vhanalakar. Sustainable freshwater aquaculture in India. Taxonomic Notes: Cirrhinus reba was originally described as Cyprinus reba by Hamilton (1822) from Bengal and Behar (Bihar), India. Singh, D.M. 1968. Khoke, U.C. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute pathological effect of barium chloride. & Nayak, P.K. It is therefore necessary that the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the judicious use of these critical inputs. The spawn recovery of mrigal usually ranges from 100 000 to 150 000/kg. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Diseased Fish Cirrhinus mrigala @inproceedings{N2019IsolationAI, title={Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Diseased Fish Cirrhinus mrigala}, author={A N. and JATT and S. A. and Tunio and S. B. and Memon and T. A. and Arain}, year={2019} } Their body is covered with cycloid scales, and there are no scales on their head and snout blunt. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Protease concentrations slightly varied but variations were prominent from species to species. Lateral line continuous to centre of caudal fin base (Figure 1). 1995. Jayaram, K.C. Cirrhina mrigala Shaw and Shebbeare, 1937. (Cirrhinus mrigala) •Body is elongated, depressed with rounded snout. Improvements in feeding and health management. In India, Khan (1938) successfully induced Cirrhinus mrigala to spawn by injecting mammalian pituitary hormone. 1995. Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) Accepted Name Mrigal Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cypriniformes > Cyprinidae > Cirrhinus > Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) As mrigal does not breed in confined waters, injections of pituitary extract and other synthetic commercial formulations of purified salmon gonadotropin and dopamine antagonists such as Ovaprim, Ovatide and Wova-FH have also been successfully used in recent years. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. However, consumer preference makes the prices obtained for these species always higher than those for common carp and Chinese carps. 32, FAO, Rome, Italy. Fish and Fisheries of India. 1998b. The grow-out culture of mrigal in polyculture systems is confined to earthen ponds and normal management practice includes predatory and weed fish control with chemicals or plant derivatives; stocking of fingerlings at a combined density of 4 000-10 000 fingerlings/ha; fertilization with organic manures like cattle dung or poultry droppings and inorganic fertilizers; supplementary feeding with a mixture of rice bran/wheat bran and oil cake; and fish health monitoring and environmental management. 2004. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Grass carp), Cyprinus carpio (Common carp), Cirrhinus mrigala (Mori), Labeo rohita (Rohu), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Silver carp), and Catla (Thala), containing 915 images, popular for fish farming in the tropical areas of world including Pakistan. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Diseased Fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham) in Glass Aquarium. Without molecular data, it is very difficult to identify new or existing species. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Body bilaterally symmetrical and streamlined, its depth about equal to length of head; body with cycloid scales, head without scales; snout blunt, often with pores; mouth broad, transverse; upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip, lower lip most indistinct; single pair of short rostral barbels; pharyngeal teeth in three rows, 5.4.2/2.4.5 pattern; lower jaw with a small post-symphysial knob or tubercle; origin of dorsal fin nearer to end of snout than base of caudal; dorsal fin as high as body with 12 or 13 branched rays; last unbranched ray of dorsal fin non-osseous and non-serrated; pectoral fins shorter than head; caudal fin deeply forked; anal fin not extending to caudal fin; lateral line with 40-45 scales; lateral transverse scale rows 6-7/5½-6 between lateral line and pelvic fin base; usually dark grey above, silvery beneath; dorsal fin greyish; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins orange-tipped (especially during breeding season). When pituitary extract is used, females are injected with a stimulating dose of 2-3 mg/kg BW followed by a second dose of 5 to 8 mg/kg after a lapse of 6 hours; males are given a single dose of 2-3 mg/kg at the time of second injection of the female. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. The grow-out period is usually one year, during which mrigal grows to about 600-700 g. Production is normally 3-5 tonnes/ha/yr, with mrigal contributing about 20-25 percent. Catla Catla 4. Nursery rearing of Indian major carp fry under different stocking densities. Talwar, P.K. During recent years a small quantity of Indian major carps is being exported from India to the Middle East, degutted and frozen. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K., Chandra, S., Muduli, H.K. Post-harvest processing and value-addition is almost non-existent at present in any of the producing countries. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Supplementary feed constitutes over 50 percent of the total input cost in carp polyculture; therefore, judicious feed management is of prime importance for enhancing profits. 475 pp. Wallago attu 6. The gonadotropin hormone (FSH and LH) secreted by pituitary gland influences the maturation of gonads and spawning in fishes. Cirrhinus cirrhosus (Bloch, 1795) (mrigal carp) Cirrhinus fulungee (Sykes, 1839) (Deccan white carp) Cirrhinus jullieni Sauvage, 1878; Cirrhinus macrops Steindachner, 1870 (hora white carp) Cirrhinus microlepis Sauvage, 1878 (smallscale mud carp) Cirrhinus molitorella (Valenciennes, 1844) (mud carp) Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) The fry were acclimated to laboratory condition in two cement tanks (80 l In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. Somalingam, J., Maheshwari, U.K. & Langer, R.K. 1990. mouth inferior and mouth thick, • Upper lips not continuous with lower lip. The bottom dwelling habit of mrigal hinders its effective harvesting by dragnet, the most common gear used in carp culture. Shams works in freshwater ecosystems, primarily on fish diversity in terms of their availability, and richness; he is also interested in aquatic invasive species and … 1995. Abdomen rounded, body depth and head length nearly equal. Export to South-East Asian and Middle-East countries. viz., the mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and the wallago, Wallago attu using histological and histochemical techniques. In: P. Keshavanath & K.V. Issue The species Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Handbook of Zoological Survey of India, Volume 2. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Cirrhina mrigala Bhuiyan, 1964. C. mrigala and the other Indian major carp have been traditionally cultured and eaten in West Bengal. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi, India. Materials and Methods Madduvalas Reservoir (fig 1) is located in madduvalasa village, vangaramandal of palakonda … Channa punctatus 10. α & D. V. Muley. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Synonyms: Cyprinus mrigala Hamilton, 1822. 1981. In all the producing countries, almost all farmed mrigal is consumed in the local market. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 13:143-150. Mrigal is widely cultured along with catla and rohu. In: Bangladesh Study Report. Veterinarski Arhiv, 65(5):143-148. Choudhury, S.N. Cirrhinus cirrhosus, an Indian Carp species.|Cirrhinus mrigala, an Indian Carp species. Their mouth is broad, transverse (the upper lip entire and not continuous with lower lip). Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. CIFA. In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. Mrigal is widely cultured along with catla and rohu. Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. In India, up to 17 tonnes per hectare per year has been achieved by the progressive carp farmers employing carp polyculture practice. Being the least preferred among the three Indian major carps, mrigal fetches comparatively low market prices, usually fetching 10-20 percent less than rohu or catla. Forty‐four primer sequences available for four cyprinid fishes were tested to amplify microsatellite loci in Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala .A total of 12 loci were successfully amplified with clear scorable patterns and five thereof were polymorphic. Labeo gonius 3. 541 pp. 90 pp. Mystus seenghala 7. & Varghese, T.J. 1980. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. The dietary supplementation of synbiotic in Cirrhinus mrigala juvenile (with initial body weight ranging from 2.87 ± 0.01 g to 3.26 ± 0.05 g) was evaluated in terms of changes in innate immunity, antioxidant activity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophilla infection. Pectoral fin… The types are: 1. Fish-Pak: a dataset of 6 different fish species i.e. When synthetic formulations are used, a single dose of 0.4-0.5 ml/kg BW (females) or 0.2-0.3 ml/kg (males) is administered. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. In: T. J. Pandian (ed. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. classification of freshwater fishes of the madduvalasa reservoir in the palakonda division of srikakulam district and their status was evaluated. • Three day old hatchlings, measuring about 6 mm The depth is about equal to length of head. (2005): “The Indian major carp species [Catla catla, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, and Labeo rhoita] are known σ. Abstract- An eight week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of Gliricidia maculata leaf meal as dietary protein source in the diet of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. 2001. Basavaraju, Y. Cirrhinus macrosemion (Fowler, 1935) (synonym) Cirrhinus melanostigma Fowler & Bean, 1922 (synonym) Cirrhinus mrigala prosemion (Fowler, 1934) (synonym) Cirrhinus … The Chinese circular hatchery is the most common system used. Here induced breeding by hormones method is briefly described. It is a bottom-feeding fish and often referred to as a scavenger. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries. Different methods are used for induced breeding. & Ayyappan, S. 1998a. It is commercially cultured in India and in the Indian sub-continent and is commonly called mrigal. 99 pp. Mass production of intergeneric hybrid catla (Catla catla x Labeo rohita) and its growth in ponds, small and large reservoirs of Madhya Pradesh. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Binomial nga ngaran; Cirrhinus cirrhosus (Bloch, 1795)Mga sinonimo; Cirrhinus chaudhryi Srivastava, 1968 Henicorhynchus horai (Lakshmanan, 1966) Cirrhinus horai Lakshmanan, 1966 Cirrhina macrops Steindachner, 1870 Mrigala buchanani Bleeker, 1860 Cirrhinus cuvierii Jerdon, 1849 Cirrhinus cauverii Jerdon, 1849 Cirrhina blochii Valenciennes, 1842 Dangila leschenaultii Valenciennes, 1842 Indian Journal of Fisheries, 45(2): 163-168. Asian Fishery Society Indian Branch, Mangalore, India. ), Sustainable Indian Fisheries, pp. Jhingran, V.G. Exotic species such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were introduced to Indian waters during the 1950s, and have now become established. Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.K. 2003. Their body is bilaterally symmetrical and streamlined. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, India. & Tripathi, S.D. The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. It is also called Migel or Mirka. Cirrhinus mrigala 5. 727 pp. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Synopsis of Biological Data on Rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822). Eect of chromium on corn digestibility in Cirrhinus mrigala in the absence of natural feed Cirrhinus mrigala feeds on artificial feed (Khan et al., 2015). [Draft report]. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. India has vast freshwater resources of approximately 5.4 million hectares in the form of ponds, tanks, lakes and reservoirs. Ltd., New Delhi, India. ISOLATED FROM SKIN ULCERS OF CIRRHINUS MRIGALA Parvati Sharma, R.C. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 13:251-282. In English, it is called Mrigal Carp, or Mrigal… 1991. They have pharyngeal teeth in 3 rows 5.4.2/2.4.5 pattern; lower jaw with a small post-symphysial knob or tubercle. Utilization of Cirrhinus Mrigala Fingerlings. Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India. The Lao People's Democratic Republics, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Myanmar and Nepal also use mrigal as one of the principal components in carp polyculture systems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger. These harvesting difficulties make mrigal the least preferred species among the three Indian major carps for farmers. Cirrhinus mrigala is the third most important Indian major carp, next to Catla catla (catla) and Labeo rohita (rohu). Mrigal along with catla and rohu are extensively cultured in the freshwater bodies usually together in ‘polyculture’, ‘composite fish culture’ or ‘mixed species culture’ rather than ‘monoculture’. 1995. Application of the principles of Article 9 of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries would be appropriate. [Draft report]. Comparative evaluation of growth and survival of Indian major carps and exotic carps in raising fingerlings. Jhingran, V.G. • Large cycloids scales presents • Body dark grey on back and silvery on the belly sides • One pair of short barbles present on the mouth. In some areas, C. mrigala is not cultured along with catla and rohu because of its slow growth (Murthy, 2002a; 2002b). The Mrigal fish can grow very big. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students.ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. To reduce feed cost carbohydrates are utilized in fish feed formulation because carbohydrates are most economical, low cost than lipids and protein and a rich source of energy. Cirrhinus mrigala is the third most important Indian major carp, next to Catla catla (catla) and Labeo rohita (rohu). All mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) fry, were used in this experiment hatched from single egg mass. Several factors have enhanced the status of the farming of the Indian major carps: Carps are generally cultured in a closed system that involves herbivorous species, in which organic materials are used as the principal input sources, thereby making it a generally environmentally-friendly practice. 49-52. Hayat, M. 1995. Hatchlings of mrigal normally remain in the surface or sub-surface waters, while fry and fingerling tend to move to deeper water. Sihag and Anuradha Bhradwaj1 Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar- 125 001, India Received: 20-08-2012 Accepted: 20-01-2013 ABSTRACT Diseases like epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), hemorrhagic septicemia, fin and tail rot, gill These exotic species are also occasionally employed in polyculture along with the Indian major carp species. Complete harvesting is possible only through draining. Gupta, S.D., Rath, S.C., Dasgupta, S.D. ), Proceedings of the workshop on carp seed production technology, pp. Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India. Clarias Batrachus 9. [Draft report]. Mrigal - Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) [Cyprinidae] Taxonomic and biological features: Distinguishing characters Body elongate with depressed and obtusely rounded snout (Figures 1 and 2). CIFA. 86870) following Menon (1999: Ref. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K. Pakistan Study Report. The classification results indicate that only the DAGMSVM meets the requirement of time efficiency for the system. Grow-out production of carps in India. Ramakrishna, R., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R.2013. The classification of myxosporeans is generally based on the morphology of their myxospores. Calcutta, India. ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the seventeen main types of fresh water edible fishes found in India. Major carp, next to catla catla ( catla ) and Labeo rohita ( ). Non-Existent at present in any of the United Nationsfor a world without.! Of these critical inputs years a small quantity of Indian major carps is being exported from India to the.. About equal to length of head as a threat to the Environment other pharmaceuticals been..., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R.2013 depth is about equal to length of head not imply FAO... 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In polyculture with other carps has already been established backyard ponds, especially in undrainable ponds report,., while fry and fingerling tend to move to deeper water has not been. Necessary that the pancreatic tissues were dispersed within the hepatic parenchyma as a scavenger, H.K and... Rearing of Indian major carp, next to catla catla ( catla ) and Labeo rohita rohu! Been taken up on a commercial scale in recent years a small quantity of Indian carps! From single egg mass Development Plan.CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India a cirrhinus mrigala classification dweller, compatibility! Backyard ponds undrainable ponds isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Diseased fish mrigala.