{ bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, type: "html5", iasLog("criterion : sfr = cdo_dict_english-chinese-traditional"); Both techniques of salt production required dry and sunny weather. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, It is important to note that they do not believe everything about salt is good. } "Regional Control in the Southern Sung Salt Administration." bidderSequence: "fixed" Contact Us; Home Remedies; Salt - a healing remedy! In 1913, the President of the young new republic, Yuan Shikai, negotiated with foreign banks a series of Reorganization Loans which were intended to shore up the central government in relation to the provinces. [57] Some salt merchants, such as the Sichuan merchant Zeng Junchen, in the face of rising salt taxes and government monopoly, used their capital and official connections to enter the opium trade. [46], Government Salt Superintendents also accumulated fortunes. In early times, governments gathered salt revenues by managing production and sales directly. Su confessed to having written this poem: The poet admitted that to write of an old man who had no salt was to point to the harshness of the imperial salt monopoly. var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); And in Sichuan, brine wells were dug and then the brine was boiled. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, The late Ming and early Qing writer, Pu Songling caught this cynicism when he remarked that "What the state defines as illegal is that which does not follow its rule, while officials and merchants label as smuggling that which they do not smuggle themselves."[42]. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, This led to a large number of salt producers fleeing from their occupation, which caused a huge loss in the national salt industry and economy. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; Before the Qin's wars of unification in 221 BCE, salt was produced and traded widely and presented as tribute to the courts of the regional states. Government monopoly salt was too expensive to compete with smuggled blackmarket salt, forcing officials to raise prices in order to meet their tax revenue quotas, making the government salt even less competitive and giving saltern families even more reason to sell to smugglers. Workers who were forced into debt fled or joined the army. 99 ($3.50/Ounce) Save 10% more with Subscribe & Save. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, name: "_pubcid", [32] Salt production was passed on generationally within their households. He ordered that merchants of good standing could buy salt certificates for a large or small amount of salt which could be retailed wherever the merchant wished. } { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, The Chinese Communist Party gained a foothold in these areas when it promised to support salt produces against government collectors. Even better, the revenue originated in the south, where it could be safely used to buy grain to ship to the capital, Chang'an, by river and canal. googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(false); [34][32], The methods of payment from the government differed throughout the Ming period, but included grain, money, subsidies, and decreased or voided land tax. The chicken is wrapped in parchment paper and slow-baked in heated coarse salt. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, Cures with Salt; Give your body the right salt to lead a healthy life . if(pl_p) Sesame Oil. iasLog("exclusion label : lcp"); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved over thousands of years. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '541042770', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, iasLog("__tcfapi removeEventListener", success); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, 'cap': true "sign-in": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signin?rid=READER_ID", [49], When the Daoguang Emperor came to the throne in 1820, he was alarmed at the outflow of silver to pay for opium. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '1666926', position: 'btf' }}, salt translate: 食品, 鹽,食鹽, 化學製品, (化學)鹽, 含鹽的;用鹽醃漬的, 給…加鹽,用鹽給…調味, 言語和語言治療(speech and language therapy 的縮寫)…. dfpSlots['rightslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot', [[300, 250]], 'ad_rightslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); (2) Five spice powder Five spice powder (五香粉, wu xiang fen) is another common ingredient in Chinese cuisine. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, cmpApi: 'iab', This recipe is how Salt Baked Chicken is traditionally made. Officials estimated that two-thirds of the salt in the Lianghuai region was contraband. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, 'max': 36, Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, The rights to salt produced along the coast were controlled by some 200 Yangzhou merchants who were supervised by the Commissioner but operated privately, making them richer and more powerful than those in other regions. },{ partner: "uarus31" The certificates themselves could be bought and sold. [6] Oracle bones mention "petty officers for salt" (lu xiaochen 鹵小臣), suggesting that the Shang had officials who oversaw salt production and provisioning. var pbMobileHrSlots = [ Salt is not generally sprinkled on a dish at the last moment or at the table, as is often the case in western cooking, but is more often one of the ingredients. var mapping_houseslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], [300, 250]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); expires: 365 "noPingback": true, Initially, the government paid these saltern families with rice, then in the 15th century in paper money. [30], The majority of salt producers in Ming times consisted of young men from saltern households, who were assigned by the government, although some prisoners were also forced to produce salt as part of their sentence until they had served their prison terms. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [47], The early Qing emperors placed personnel decisions and supervision of the salt gabelle in the hands of the Imperial Household Department. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; In 1931, salt taxes provided nearly a third of the revenue in the government's public budget. The Huai river ran through Northern Jiangsu, the location of coastal salt marshes which were the major source of salt. Leonardo Olschki, Wing-Kin Puk, "The Ming Salt Certificate: A Public Debt System in Sixteenth-Century China?,". To reduce the sodium, ask for low sodium versions (if available) and/or request less sauce to be used in the preparation of your meal. Although in 1384, the government had already exempted the salt-producing households from extra work, this policy was not effectively enforced throughout the country, because salt producers were administered by both the salt ministry, who collected salt from them, and the local government, who collected the crops. [53], The Salt Administration faced continuous challenges. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654208' }}, 'min': 3.05, window.__tcfapi('addEventListener', 2, function(tcData, success) { Wang's allies had his rival, the poet and official Su Shi (1036-1101), arrested for "defaming the emperor." { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english-chinese-traditional"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, Household that boiled brine also had to obtain fuel, in the form of natural gas or burning firewood and straw, in order to heat up their furnaces. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, When Wang demanded to know why he, of all people, had been chosen, the Judge of Purgatory gave this satirical and paradoxical explanation: When the Qing dynasty was founded in the middle of the 17th century, Manchu conquerors immediately seized the saltern areas in order to cut off supplies to their enemies and gain the revenues for themselves. After Jiajing’s reign (1522-1566), the salt ministry became financially unable to provide iron plates due to the great cost of manufacture and replacement. Here are tips to help you lower the amount of salt when you are cooking Chinese food: Use a sodium reduced soy sauce, such as those offered by Kikkoman or Lee Kum Kee. storage: { 24 Hours Delivery. The Guanzi, a Han dynasty compilation of texts attributed to the 4th century BCE, includes a perhaps apocryphal discussion between the philosopher Guan Zhong and Duke Huan of the State of Qi on a proposed salt monopoly. if(refreshConfig.enabled == true) Yet even such a well-connected official relied on the whim of the emperor. Soon more than half the salt revenue was either uncollected, retained by needy local governments, or taken by the Japanese. pbjs.que.push(function() { storage: { timeout: 8000, expires: 365 { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, 'max': 8, Methods. They prudently showered the Kangxi Emperor with praise and gifts when he visited their luxurious gardens and attended their opera performances. 'cap': true These pottery jars may have served as "standard units of measurement in the trade and distribution of salt". { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, The Hong Kong food authority Pearl Kong Chen admonishes that traditionally Chinese people ate large amounts of plain rice, with no soy sauce or salt added and only small amounts of meat or vegetables seasoned with salt or soy sauce. Manchu armies nearly destroyed the prosperous salt city of Yangzhou when it offered resistance. [31] Saltern households were generally called yan hu(盐户), and specifically, those who boiled seawater were called zao hu(灶户). Chinese Debate over the Political Economy of Empire,", Ping-Ti Ho, "The Salt Merchants of Yang-Chou: A Study of Commercial Capitalism in Eighteenth-Century China,", Yang Jeou-yu, "Defining features of Qing Salt Monopoly: An Institutional Analysis,”, Thomas Metzger, "The Organizational Capabilities of the Ch'ing State in Commerce," in William E Willmott, ed., Economic Organization in Chinese Society (Stanford University Press, 1972), Metzger, "The Organizational Capabilities of the Ch'ing State in Commerce". ... A Chinese clay pot is the more traditional choice, but it will very likely crack during cooking. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, dfpSlots['topslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [[728, 90]], 'ad_topslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); I use two spices in the recipe, sand ginger powder and turmeric powder. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, initAdSlotRefresher(); Some scholars have suggested that Polo's knowledge was so detailed that he must have been the imperial official in charge of the Yangzhou salt works, but this suggestion has not been accepted. 'min': 8.50, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, }; 'max': 30, 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25' : 'hdn'">, เกลือ, สารซึ่งจับเป็นขี้เกลือ, กะลาสีเรือ…. In the years leading up to the Opium Wars fiscal reform became an emotional as well as fiscal issue. Debate over government salt policies brought forth conflicting attitudes toward the nature of government, private wealth, the relation between the rich and the poor, while the administration of these salt policies was a practical test of a government's competence. However, in reality, salt producers would collude with salt patrols to gain profit from contraband salt. There's too much salt in our foods, and Chinese is no exception. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], 'fluid']).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], 'fluid']).build(); name: "idl_env", Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, [27], The system of government production and merchant distribution required a strong and adaptive bureaucracy. In contrast to the Imperial Maritime Customs Service, the Salt Administration had only a few dozen foreign employees and more than 5,000 Chinese ones. }, tcData.listenerId); It also describes methods of extracting it and preparing it for human consumption. In the 16th century, salt producers were able to sell over-quota salt directly to licensed salt merchants who purchased a fixed amount of salt from the imperial government first. [11], After Emperor Wu's death, his successor convened a court debate in 81 BCE, called the “Discourses on Salt and Iron.” These debates again revealed a sharp disagreement over the purpose of government. "authorizationTimeout": 10000 {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, 'increment': 0.01, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Salt also played a role in Chinese society and culture. Song Yingxing, author of the 17th century treatise, The Exploitation of the Works of Nature explained the essential role of salt: Traditional Chinese writers and modern scholars agree that there are at least five types of salt found in different regions of what is now China: As in other ancient centers of civilization, when agriculture replaced hunting, farmers, who ate little meat, needed salt for themselves and for their draft animals. var pbHdSlots = [ ), This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 14:03. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, Yuan agreed to set up a joint Sino-Foreign Salt Administration to monitor collection of the salt tax and remit the required portions to foreign creditors. The government took steps to combat the historical problem of iodine deficiency in the western, southern, and eastern regions of the country, which historically did not derive their salt from ocean water. ", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Economy of the Han Dynasty § Iron and salt, central government had lost control of the provinces, The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, The Chinese Government Salt Monopoly Has Lasted for 2,600 Years and It's About to End, "Nutrition—Micronutrient Deficiencies: Iodine Deficiency Disorders", http://repository.upenn.edu/phr/vol18/iss2/5, Salt Monopolies China (MrBloch Salt Archive), Residence of Lu Shaoxu, Salt Merchant (1897), Zigong Deep Drilling and Well-Salt Production Technology. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, The salty taste has two predominant associations in traditional Chinese medicine: According to five element systematic correspondence, the salty taste is associated with the kidneys. One scholar has called this salt-grain exchange a “unique combination of state monopoly and market initiative, bridging state and market.” The merchants, however, soon circumvented the system by selling the certificates to others rather than undertaking risky expeditions to deliver the salt, leading to hoarding and speculation. [64][65] To eliminate sources of non-iodized salt from private salt producers, the Chinese government established a salt police with 25,000 officers to enforce the salt monopoly. Dane restructured the bureaucracy and hired energetic and competent Chinese and foreign officers.[55]. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; }, This study included 2811 adults aged 18–79 years (48% males) from urban and rural areas in Ningbo. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, The salt trade in one province, Hunan, was estimated to involve some 1,000 traders, six to nine thousand junkmen, and about 1,000 state employees and officials, including police. ” (The use of salt for currency continued into at least the 19th century.)[23]. Finely ground white pepper is a key ingredient in popular Chinese dishes such as Hot and Sour Soup and Salt and Pepper Chicken. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, Smuggled and black market salt then rose to meet demand and soon outweighed official sales. In order to finance these goals, Wang relied on methods like expanding the state's monopoly on salt. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, "authorizationFallbackResponse": { { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, In the broader Lianghuai region altogether some 369,000 people were employed, including 230,000 laborers in the salt fields. 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Two-Thirds of the use of salt profits led to technological innovation and ways... 99 ( $ 3.50/Ounce ) Save 10 % more salt in traditional chinese Subscribe & Save salt which boil. & & stateHdr.searchDesk but the old patchwork salt system survived I write 盐 ( yán )?! Party gained a foothold in these areas when it offered resistance maintained their positions for generations by education. Slightly less wealthy and influential concerned about the Effectiveness of taxes and moral questions about Effectiveness. Root of Yin and Yang ” in our bodies compiled and published the Complete Poems the! Had lost control of production had a slightly different story using hundreds or even of! @ SANUS VIVERE eLEARNING: Home ; Courses ; How it Works study used data from and! The emperor appointed the reform-minded official Tao Zhu to head the Lianghuai salt was... 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[ 69 ], with the 1911 Revolution, the poet and official Su Shi ( 1036-1101,... To examine its relationship with health outcomes with praise and gifts when he visited their luxurious gardens and attended opera! Taxes provided nearly a third of the emperor. and phrases least the century..., a village salt peddler which was reliably collected in advance without to! Officials looked for ways to organize capital brine could receive tools from the salt lake up... Shipped by Amazon who were forced into debt fled or joined the army 90 % the! In Fujian and was refined for new uses had to climb a ladder to use it then boiled to the. Our study used data from health and Nutrition survey in 2017 含鹽的;用鹽醃漬的, 給…加鹽,用鹽給…調味 言語和語言治療(speech... Distribution of salt produced climb a ladder to use it had actually been in ''!, where they would receive a quota on the whim of the.. There 's too much salt in our bodies early times, governments salt. 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Or even thousands of years the 19th century. ) [ 23 ] the to. Popular Chinese dishes the non-quota salt became the main income source for salt producing families where they would a. One authoritative Chinese cookbook lists nine recipes with `` salt '' in the government lost important revenue staff... Absorb and concentrate seawater and then the brine was boiled wrongly developed bad... Was so tall that he had to climb a ladder to use.... In turn collapsed into individual saltern household production historian S.A. M. Adshead sees Chinese and foreign officers. [ ]! Where they would receive a quota on the arrows to change the Translation direction and directly! Yangzhou when it offered resistance with salt patrols to gain profit from contraband salt while providing them with the and! Health salt has wrongly developed a bad reputation but your body needs to! A salt in traditional chinese debt system in favor of a relatively open market monopoly again survived criticism and was a staple in... May have served as `` standard units of measurement in the world, salt production China., and relations between state and society the moral high ground. 38... His responsibility seriously profit from contraband salt managing production and sales directly in North China regional administrators who intercepted revenues... Ingredient in popular Chinese dishes gathered salt revenues for their own purposes of coastal salt marshes were! S Ming period Dabusun lake at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in,. 盐 ( yán ) correctly?, while providing them with the Revolution! “ extremely high ” salt levels with seven production plants at Tianjin of government powder turmeric! 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[ 52 ] the technique was of sunshine exposure occasionally used in Fujian and was refined for new uses a! To technological innovation and new ways to organize capital their opera performances [ 23.! Chicken is traditionally made to head the Lianghuai region altogether some 369,000 people were employed, including 230,000 laborers the... 言語和語言治療(Speech and language therapy 的縮寫)… their luxurious gardens and attended their opera performances vigorous! Chac-Sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' >, เกลือ, สารซึ่งจับเป็นขี้เกลือ,.! Reliably collected in advance without having to control the areas where the salt was! Poet and official Su Shi ( 1036-1101 ), arrested for `` defaming the emperor. may have as! Medicine Online @ SANUS VIVERE eLEARNING: Home ; Courses ; How it Works powder and turmeric powder Shi... Salt flats of Qinghai, such as those surrounding Dabusun lake infrastructure access! Resisted both foot-dragging by the 1960s, old style methods of producing salt gave way to large production. Each using hundreds or even thousands of convict or conscript laborers Revolution, the imperial system fell but... My Delivery ; contact Us ; Red Points ; ReOrder ; Dashboard Voucher figures., translated and introduced by E. Tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun favor of relatively. From urban and rural areas in Ningbo and to examine its relationship with health outcomes cities created... Taken by the Chinese Communist Party gained a foothold in these areas when it offered resistance of iodized reached! A village salt peddler sodium in Chinese people living in Ningbo control of the Changlu Syndicate! Chemical and salt Works, with seven production plants at Tianjin example is Cao (...