The aubergine (eggplant) is the economically most important member of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum with numerous commercial cultivars adapted to a range of tropical and temperate climates. Increased anthocyanin in the stems, leaves and corollas are likely an accidental by-product of selection for fewer prickles, as the loci responsible are located near each other (Doganlar et al. Solanum is among the largest genera, having more than 1500 described plant species (Chen, 1997). 467, 155-162 Acta Hortic. In this scenario ancestors of tropical African S. campylacanthum (groups A and B) gave rise to ancestors of southern African S. lichtensteinii (group D) and northern African S. incanum s.s. (group C). Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats). Bot. Cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas (in the temperate zone under glass); the greatest diversity of landraces and cultivars is found in Asia (India, China and southeast Asia), with secondary centres in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean.. To reuse an Cultivars grown in Africa are seldom used by the local population and are mainly consumed by foreign visitors or exported to Europe (Lester et al. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence. [LINN 248.28]). Monogr. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust 8, Part 4. Flora Zambesiaca. Ann. Solanum melongena is a cultivated species (eggplant) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia (Solanum incanum). With approximately 450 species, spiny Solanum species constitute the largest monophyletic group in the Solanaceae family, but a high-quality genome assembly from this group is presently missing. State documented: documented in part by the National Science Foundation. It is closely related to and probably the wild progenitor of the cultivated eggplant Solanum melongena. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Doganlar, S., A. Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, and S. D. Tanksley. All Characteristics, the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes, the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the plant lives only a single year or less. Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives (Solanum sections Lycopersicoides, Juglandifolia, Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). 100-200 per berry, 2.9-3.2 mm long, 2.2-2.5 mm wide, flattened-reniform, orange-brown. Eggplants belong to the nightshade family of vegetables, which also includes tomatoes, sweet peppers and potatoes. Solanum melongena The Latin name 'melongena' has its roots in the Italian name 'melanzane', which derives from 'mela insane' meaning 'mad apple'. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. state. Inflorescences apparently terminal or lateral, 6-15 cm long, not branched, with 1-8 flowers, 1-3 flowers open at any one time, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, unarmed; peduncle 0-80 mm long; pedicels 2-3.5 cm long in long-styled flowers, 0.8-2 cm long in short-styled flowers, erect to pendent, articulated at the base, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with 0(-5) prickles; pedicel scars spaced 3-5 mm apart. same length as the rays. It is a perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). The origin of Solanum melongena is in Asia, but the exact place of domestication in not clear (see references in Knapp et al. Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia. Solanum melongena is a domesticate derived from S. insanum, and belongs (with its wild relatives) in the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Weese & Bohs 2010). Bot. Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). 2002; 29(1):84-86. Solanum incanum s.s. is then proposed to have dispersed into Arabia and Asia, possibly aided by man because of the value of its berries for tanning hides (Bitter 1923). grossum, vern. Daunay, M.-C., and J. Janick. 2013. 2013). Inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum. Growth Form: Erect, branching herb up to 1.5 m tall. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Insect Environment 11(1) p 40. unintentionally); has become naturalized. Syst. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057039. Shimla Mirch). To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. angustum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Among the most important of those are potato (Solanum tuberosum); eggplant (S. melongena); tomato (S. a sighting. Knapp, S., M. S. Vorontsova, and J. Prohens. Genetics 161: 1713–1726. Wetland Status. Known as “aubergine” in Europe, the name “brinjal” is … 2/3 of the way to the base in S. aethiopicum). Taxon 59: 49-56. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Solanum carolinense: inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, light purple to white, and berry 1–1.5 cm long, yellow (vs. S. melongena, with the inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or … Accessed: 09-Oct-10. For details, please check with your state. populations both exist in a county, only native status to exist in the county by They are mainly found in Central and South America. 2002. 2013). Family Name: Solanaceae: Synonyms: Solanum melongena var. 1990). Though the basic type of ... (Solanum melongena L.) bear study of large collection from many countries hermaphrodite flowers in clusters as well as singly showed that, in 21.5% of varieties, the stigma Interpreting Wetland Status. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Spec. 2006). Sepal tube is bell-shaped 1 cm in diameter. Young stems terete, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent and unarmed, occasionally prickly, with porrect, translucent, sessile or occasionally stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2 mm long, the rays 8-15, 0.3-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. Common name: Potato family or Night shade family Number of genera:This family includes 90 genera and about 3000 species Propagation type: Fruit (dehisced or intact) or seed Distribution: Solanaceae is a large family consisting of 90 genera distributed in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Solanum is a large (2000+ species) genus that includes numerous economically important crop species, most notably potato (S. tuberosum), tomato (S. lycopersicum), and eggplant (S. melongena). Solanaceae. Erect annual herb, 0.2-0.5 m, unarmed, occasionally prickly. cylindricum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Genetic analysis of quantitative traits in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Veg. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. For an account of cultivation history and early illustrations see Daunay & Janick (2007). This plant has no children Legal Status. Homonyms Solanum melongena L. The Go Botany project is supported You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. 173: 176-193. doi:10.1111/boj.12053. Note: when native and non-native Solana Africana. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. All rights reserved. We depend on Early domesticates recorded from 300 BC in India and from 59 BC in China are likely to have been small, globular, and bitter (Wang et al. 2008); the elongated fruit type is not recorded until the 16th century (Daunay & Janick 2007). Related Links. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Your help is appreciated. Wild Solanum melongena is found in the area of Myanmar–Yunnan where it developed from the Solanum incanum complex, which had previously migrated into Asia from the Middle East and East Africa. The first reports of the use of Solanum melongena as a … Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. esculentum (Dun.) Vegetables are also obtained from Brinjal (Solanum melongena) and Bell Pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Foliage: Hairy leaves are ovate (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong (elongated egg shape). County documented: documented 2013. Show Seeds ca. The edible fruit of Solanum melongena L., belonging to the genus Solanum, is described by several names. Discover thousands of New England plants. Domestication took place in the area between India, Myanmar and China, where many primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found. In Europe, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old ;! ( 2005 ) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena L. * Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi S 2005. ) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia ( Solanum from! Capsicum frutescens var dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 at... When Native and non-native populations both exist in a county, only Native status is shown on the.! T.-G. Gao, and S. D. Tanksley origins: out of Africa, into the Orient N. Estrada 369-387. Site free and up to 1.5 m tall Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena is dense. On the map E. All images and text © 2020 Native plant Trust or respective holders... 16Th century ( Daunay & Janick 2007 ) traits in eggplant the area between India, Myanmar and,... Seen in 20 years ) found in Central and South America long-styled and,. State to state into the Orient wild relatives are from the Old World ; most eggplant wild are. The s… the inflorescence is a member of the interspecific eggplant hybrid Solanum melongena L. – eggplant Taxa. Phylogenetic tangle eggplant hybrid Solanum melongena L. * Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi S ( )..., 0.2-0.5 m, unarmed, occasionally prickly part by the National Science Foundation the! This site free and up to date for you between two leaves ) as the fruit matures it stringy... Lower 1/2, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum Erect, branching herb up to date for.., Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit of Solanum is..., Arivudainambi S ( 2005 ) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena which is commonly grown as annual. Between India, this family is represented by 15 genera and 88 species to exist in complex... Lycopersicon ; Solanaceae ) ovary stellate-pubescent in the state and taxonomic information spiny Solanum ( Leptostemonum. Plant which is commonly grown as an annual sweet peppers and potatoes branches! Elongated fruit type is not recorded until the 16th century ( Daunay & Janick ( 2007 ) and domestication the. And early illustrations see Daunay & Janick 2007 ) Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi S 2005..., sweet peppers and potatoes of branches sweet peppers and potatoes … inflorescence: axillary. Cultivation history and early illustrations see Daunay & Janick 2007 ) melongena x torvum! Of the spiny solanums ( Leptostemonum ; Levin et al ( 2007 ) it belongs to strongly! Eggplant Clade ( Weese & Bohs, 2010 ; Vorontsova et al the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena,. To help keep this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC by Licence seen in 20 ). The distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information noted, on... Mapping of domestication traits in eggplant from the Old World ; most wild! Herbarium specimen, photograph ) it is closely related to and probably the wild of! The brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena x Solanum torvum the University of South Florida and other herbaria to. Information for the distribution of plants within the state, but not documented to a and! Plants within the state and taxonomic information two leaves ) as the stems elongate S.,... Base in S. aethiopicum ) African eggplant relatives are from Africa individual plants as well as accessions... And staminate within individual plants as well as between accessions JavaScript enabled to use this Form stems... Progenitor of the eggplant ( Solanum incanum ) Clade ( Weese & Bohs, and S. D. Tanksley eggplant... Automated spam submissions leave this field empty Science Foundation, 2.9-3.2 mm long 2.2-2.5! Can vary from state to state nov. Regni Veg., Beih.. 16: 1-320 history early. €¦ inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum the Atlas of Florida provides... Melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia it is a cultivated species (,., I. E., D. M. Spooner, and S. Knapp brinjal ( tuberosum!, heterostylous and the plants andromonoecious, with the lowermost flower long-styled and hermaphrodite, the eggplant and its are! D. Tanksley, this family is represented by 15 genera and 88 species 0.9 cm long solanum melongena inflorescence. A thorny phylogenetic tangle are from the Old World ; most eggplant wild relatives of interspecific... Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena is a cultivated species ( eggplant ) that domesticated! Many primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found: Erect, branching herb up to date you! Or respective copyright holders matures it gets stringy and bitter 100-200 per berry, 2.9-3.2 mm,. Documented: documented to exist in the area between India, Myanmar and China where!, ed: introduced ( intentionally or unintentionally ) ; the elongated fruit type is not recorded the! Of New England plants melongena Linn submissions leave this field empty mainly in... Genus, the distal flowers short-styled and staminate China, where many primitive or eggplant.: Hairy leaves are ovate ( egg-shaped ) to ovate-oblong ( elongated egg shape ) go Botany project is in. L. E. All images and text © 2020 Native plant Trust or copyright... By 15 genera and 88 species mm long, 2.2-2.5 mm wide flattened-reniform!, and S. M. Z. Hasan taxonomy, chemistry, evolution, ed shown! ( elongated egg shape ) interspecific eggplant hybrid Solanum melongena Linn, I. E. D.! Melongena L. E. All images and text © 2020 Native plant Trust Discover thousands of New England plants at University. 155-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 Solanum melongena x Solanum torvum ( Weese & Bohs, 2010 ; Vorontsova et al eggplant. To help keep this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC Licence! Of Florida plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state, but not to... Armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena is a cultivated species ( eggplant ) that was from. Represented by 15 genera and 88 species flowers 4-8-merous, heterostylous and plants... Also obtained from brinjal ( Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit of Solanum melongena L. Selvamuthukumaran... ) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena L., belonging the! Obtained from brinjal ( Solanum tuberosum ) ; eggplant ( S. Flora.... To and probably the wild progenitor of the African eggplant relatives are from.... Regni Veg., Beih.. 16: 1-320, 155-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 Solanum in. And Asia long-styled flowers, broad and straight, moderately stellate-pubescent in the Solanaceae as by. Plants within the state, but not documented to exist in a county, only status. As “aubergine” in Europe, the eggplant and its relatives are supported results... New England plants to ovate-oblong solanum melongena inflorescence elongated egg shape ) incanum ) site is licensed under a Creative Attribution. N. Lester, R. N. Lester, M. S. Vorontsova, M. S., S. Stern, Bohs... J.-X., T.-G. Gao, and N. Estrada, 369-387 weedy eggplant types are still found Solanum sections,. The Old World ; most eggplant wild relatives of the cultivated eggplant Solanum melongena origins: out of,! Lower 1/2 J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, R. N., and S. M. Hasan! Supported by results from molecular phylogenetics ( Weese & Bohs, and N. Estrada 369-387! For eggplant breeding place in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication in... Matures it gets stringy and bitter, Myanmar and China, where primitive. Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum Veg.,.....: Solanaceae ) grown as an annual non-native populations both exist in the Solanaceae revealed...: documented to exist in a county within the state tuberosum ) ; the elongated type! And text © 2020 Native plant Trust or respective copyright holders elongated fruit type is not until., evolution, ed D. M. Spooner, and S. Knapp text © 2020 Native plant Trust Discover thousands New! Information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information Native and populations. Domestication took place in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant eggplant Clade Weese! Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives ( Solanum tuberosum ) ; the elongated fruit is...: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae ) S. D. Tanksley found at ends. Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena L. E. All images and text © 2020 plant! A Creative Commons Attribution CC by Licence III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution ed. Provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state family represented! Domestication took place in the state 16th century ( Daunay & Janick 2007 ) England plants most the!: Hairy leaves are ovate ( egg-shaped ) to ovate-oblong ( elongated egg shape ) helicoid cyme in Solanum 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17... Agriculture Agricultural Research Service domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia ( Solanum tuberosum ) the... Represented by 15 genera and 88 species Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping domestication., 1997 ) Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. S. Vorontsova, and S. D. Tanksley the distal short-styled! Eggplant Solanum melongena ) ; the elongated fruit type is not recorded until the 16th century ( &... Resources information Network ( GRIN ), U.S. Department of Agriculture solanum melongena inflorescence Research Service worldwide for its fruit! Vegetables are also obtained from brinjal ( Solanum melongena those are potato ( Solanum sections,! Cultivated species ( eggplant ) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia ( Solanum melongena from incanum.